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By: Pedro Walker

Article Directory:

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Betting on baseball cards – Jul. 28, 2006

It boils down to a couple of simple principles — how many there are and what kind of condition the card is in.

NEW YORK ( — Once a year, baseball-card collectors gather for the granddaddy of all sports collectible conventions – the National Sports Collectors Convention.

Earlier this year, the Major League Baseball Players Association lent their assistance, cutting in half the number of licenses it offers to card manufacturers in an effort to rid the glut of new cards on the market.

The market has been bouncing back, particularly vintage cards, those that date backs 25 years or more. But with Ripken’s achievement faded from the minds of collectors, that same ungraded card would only fetch $40 today.

Steroids’ next victim: Baseball labor peace Top of page

Then there are the cards from the 1970s and 1980s, which predate the card explosion, that some experts like Kelnhofer say could experience the next wave of popularity.


In fact, the fabled Honus Wagner card, which was produced by the Sweet Caporal Cigarette Company in 1909, is currently the most expensive card in existence, worth a cool $1.265 million. Flooding the market with multiple versions of new cards, the manufacturers drove down card values.

The hobby looks like it has rebounded from the doldrums of the 90s, but is there money to be made in collecting Aarons and Ruths?

Currently underway in Anaheim, Calif., the four-day event will not only be a place for collectors to haggle over the value of their Lou Gehrigs and Jackie Robinsons, there’s bound to be a few collectors who reflect on how the hobby took a nosedive during the 1990s.. “Investors just need to hear it’s safe to go back in.”

What’s hot now

And in June, Major League Baseball and the players’ association teamed up with card manufacturers Topps and Upper Deck to launch the first ever National Baseball Card Day, giving out 500,000 card packs at hobby shops and retailers nationwide in an effort to promote the hobby.

Hope for future?

Andy Madec, a dealer based in Camarillo, Calif., remembers that time vividly.

But there is a lot of fickleness too, says Scott Kelnhofer, editor of Card Trade, the monthly trade journal for the sports collection industry

“It just got too out of hand,” says Madec, who runs his own firm, Andy Madec Sports Cards Inc.

Even though the hobby struggles to bring young collectors into the fold, there have been some promising signs for baseball card collecting as of late.

Best baseball books

Take Cal Ripken Jr.’s 1982 Topps rookie card. (See the most valuable cards.)

But many in the industry, like Madec, who is currently attending the National Sports Collectors Convention, is certain that is there is a future for this enduring hobby, despite its setbacks in recent years. Even in good times, collecting is a tough hobby. “The vintage market is still the place for people to get involved purely from an investment standpoint,” says Kelnhofer. But that was until the card companies tried to get in on the fun. “This market has incredible potential,” he says. “There’s always buyers and sellers for that material.”

Most valuable cards

“It’s a tricky thing,” Kelnhofer says. In 1996, the year after Ripken broke Lou Gehrig’s record for number of most consecutive games played, a card in mint condition that had not been professionally appraised would have sold for $90. “It turned people off.”

Rookie cards of players like Mickey Mantle, who typified the golden era of baseball, are always in high demand among older collectors.

Cards dating back to the turn of the 20th century that were produced as promotional items for ice cream, candy and tobacco companies are some of the hottest cards on the market right now, according to collectors.

Dealers like Stephen Dickler, who runs SD Trading, located just outside of Philadelphia, says moves such as this could work, but it’s too early to tell. “There’s no guarantee it will happen,” says Dickler. “The questions are still out there as to whether it will have an impact or not.”

Up until the late 1980s and early 1990s, collectors were living in a golden age, says Madec – returns of 20 percent in just six months were not unheard of

College football

“N.C.A.A. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

Listen to this article (info/dl)

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Associated Press. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.




The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). Stone. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via American athletes of the century”. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. pp. 11-13. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. It also became increasingly violent. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. Sports Retrieved 2007-03-21. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. 2007. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. Each school played its own variety of football. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ Top N. Boston Daily Globe. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. 2007. Sumner (1990). 2006. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Professional Football Researchers Association. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). (Audio help)

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Field hockey


Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor


Rise of the South

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]




games 1930-2010[144]


# of games




















College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. August 22, 1900. 2007. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. NCAA. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. Football’s Greatest Coaches. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.




Division III

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via 111, Issue 8

Brian M. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. p. 15 – via Google books. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]



This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. OSU Alumni Association. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Map of NJCAA

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. The History of Sports. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

Cross Country







Athletic directors





Hall of Champions



Championship. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. College Football Encyclopedia. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period'; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association'; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]


Division I sports

Field hockey


A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).




The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. University of Illinois. College Football Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

The first USC football squad (1888). open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. December 18, 1930. “The Birth of OSU Football”. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. FOX Sports on MSN. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. College Football Data Warehouse. November 7, 1886. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. “College Football in Kansas”. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]




Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.


See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy



Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. The New York Times. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). 2007. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. Augusta Computer Services. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). San Francisco Chronicle. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). p. 52. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. College Football Data Warehouse. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. Associated Press. Nixon (1898-12-16). Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. (1969). NFL Enterprises LLC. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]



On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

Ice hockey



Knute Rockne

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. ESPN. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

Beach volleyball


1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Princeton Alumni Weekly. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

1.6.2 Coaches of the era Glenn “Pop” Warner Knute Rockne





Map of NCAA Division II

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl




On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.






Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season


The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. Athens, Georgia: E. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]



1906 St. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). 2007-02-14. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. August 2008. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. 1895. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Sports Publishing LLC. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. p. 186. Chicago Tribune. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]




At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. “Changing seasons: Y. The Research Quarterly. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

Walter Camp: Father of American football

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.


College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. pp. 285-311. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. December 27, 1892. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. November 27, 2011. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. Kansas Historical Quarterly. A (October 1913 – March 1914). Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. Los Angeles Herald. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011,

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011,

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014,

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014,

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013,—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007,

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011,

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. sporting event.[76]

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.


The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

and championships




Map of Division I (AA) FCS



1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. Tar Heel Times. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.





Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. Lawrence Daily Journal. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

National Collegiate Athletic Association

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. Bill Traughber. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Map of NAIA

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. February 19, 1911. reprint of Silver & Gold article. 40: 717-724. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. Atlanta Constitution. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. p. 5. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. (1995). The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.


Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]




As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. McGill


From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

Heisman shift

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

See also




Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). 2012-05-14. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. McGill football game

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.



^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015,

^ Jim L. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. 18, No. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Led by coach Fielding H. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

Swimming & Diving



Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. p. 8. Stanford: Home of Champions. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

Map of NCAA Division III

The 1893 Stanford American football team

Ice hockey



1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force








Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. Rutgers Through The Years. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. Journal of Sport History. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Modern college football (since 1958)

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.




American college football

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. Atlanta Constitution. April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

Meanwhile, John H. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]



Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Navy won 24-0.

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. New York Times. Deseret News. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. University of Virginia Football Vault. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.




Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. Heisman Trophy. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

Division II

Ice hockey


After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. D. Rutgers University. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. “Southeastern Conference”. Lawrence Journal-World. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

Map of Division I (A) FBS

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

Notable intersectional games



Retrieved from “″

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games


College Football at

College Football at

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History


NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations


Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences




In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. Smith. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Kicked tries count as one point. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. The number grew to eleven in 1976. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. The Dallas Morning News. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. This college rule was added in 1988. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. Los Angeles Times. Nelson. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

American football historian Parke H. The Anatomy of a Game. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. How to Scout Football. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]



On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. Davis. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). Reading Eagle. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

Water polo



Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship



Mountain West

Cross Country



1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. April 15, 2011. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

– John C. Lincoln Evening Journal. MSNBC. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. Journal of Sport History. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. Pennsylvania”. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.




The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. 2007. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.


Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. Joseph M. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. The Kingsport Times. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. National Collegiate Athletic Association. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. 16 Stanford”. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Swimming & Diving



In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014,

Field hockey


The 1905 Utah football team




Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)




Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. of C. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. April 16, 2007. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

Single-division sports

Playoff games

Pacific Coast

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. Hickok Sports. Outing. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. It appears here in its original form:

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. p. 3. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

Rugby Football in England and Canada

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. Weyand (1962). These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. British Columbia Rugby Union. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. Football, the American intercollegiate game. (1916-10-15). For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. College Football Data Warehouse. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. Bernstein. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. 2001. Tennessee Historical Society. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games







In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

and championships

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

Mid West

Harvard vs. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. Frank Suffel and Henry H. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. Saperecom. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. p. 232.

^ David M. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). MSN Encarta. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat




The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). Journal of Sport History, Vol. The Strode Publishers. Stanford: Home of Champions. “Sport Slants”. USC Trojans. “College Football”. December 30, 1894. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. 2007. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Harvard University Sports Information Office. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game'”.

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. May 8, 1900. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. p. 21. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

Violence, formation of NCAA

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.




In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Professional Football Researchers Association. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. The University of Alabama. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. 256 players are selected annually. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. (2007). Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. Retrieved 2016-01-24.




Cross Country



1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South Heisman shift Notable intersectional games

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. The Walter Camp Foundation. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]


Swimming & Diving



In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. “Why California Likes Rugby”. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Ralph Turtinen, ed. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. 2007. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

Don Hutson in 1940.

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. (1991). Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]



Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)


Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

































































Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.



Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

Map of CCCAA



^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. Football Immortals. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). 16: 583. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M

New gambling record: Betting on outcome of Brexit vote

This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. That’s reflected in financial markets, where stocks and the British pound are relatively buoyant one day before the big event.

LONDON — As if the stakes were not high enough in Britain’s nail-biting vote this week, people are betting record amounts of money on its outcome.

Betfair, bookmakers Ladbrokes and Paddy Power and the Betting Research Unit at Nottingham Business School all estimate that the total value of bets on the vote placed in Britain will reach, and likely exceed, 100 million pounds.

Thursday’s vote on whether to leave the European Union, which will have lasting consequences for the country and Europe, is due to break the record as the most bet-upon political event in Britain’s history. The referendum also outmatches the 35 million pounds placed on the 2014 World Cup Final.

Betfair allows people to place wagers against each other rather than setting odds like the traditional bookmakers. Spread betting, on the other hand, does not provide a simple win or lose outcome, but can provide payoffs based on the accuracy of the bet. vote as of Wednesday and expects a final amount of 50 million pounds. Ladbrokes has seen a tenfold increase in recent years.

Such betting fever is normally associated with major sports events, with people here habitually placing wagers online or in betting shops on everything from horse races to football matches. All Rights Reserved. It has become increasingly popular, particularly to bet on financial markets.

For Stephen Jones, 55, betting is a form of insurance against disappointment. Polls suggest it is too close to call, while bookies give the “remain” side a higher chance of winning.

E.U. presidential race, which was its previous record for a political event. While the polls show this week’s vote is too close to call, bookies like Betfair are giving the “remain” side a 76 percent probability of winning. He was back in the betting shop this week to place additional wagers on behalf of three American friends.

The betting has also gained the attention of global investors as a gauge of the likelihood of an event’s outcome. He intends to vote to leave the E.U., but has placed bets on “remain” to at least get something in case of his side’s defeat..

“This is a historical event, and I want to take part in it,” said Can Zhao, an investment researcher who last week placed a 135-pound ($198) bet on “remain” at a Ladbrokes betting parlor near London’s Kings Cross train station.

Betting is his way to get in on the drama because as a foreign citizen from China he will not have a right to vote. © 2016 The Associated Press. But the importance, drama and uncertainty that have surrounded this vote have made it a spectator sport in its own right. That surpasses the 40 million pounds placed on the 2012 U.S. The industry is expecting 100 million pounds, or nearly $150 million, to be wagered by the time the result is known in the early hours of Friday.

Betting exchange Betfair says it had taken 45.8 million pounds in wagers on the E.U. “But my big win is to leave the E.U.”

“This is comfortably the biggest political betting event in history and dwarves both the general election and the Scottish referendum,” says Lewis Davey, spokesman for Paddy Power, referring to the Scottish vote on independence last year.

Betting on political events used to be a niche area in the gambling industry but has become more widespread, particularly in Britain. referendum betting already hit a record for a political event days ago for Betfair, bookmaker BetFred and IG, the largest provider of spread betting services.

The bookies’ odds have largely been in synch with global financial markets. That’s particularly true since pollsters have missed badly in measuring sentiment before some of Britain’s most recent votes, the last general election and the Scottish referendum.

“If we are going to remain in the E.U., at least I will take compensation,” said Jones, who expects to get 3,000 pounds back in profit in such an event

How To Bet And Win In Horse racing

As the odds for winning increases so does the payout. If one horse win and the other does not, you will lose your bet, both horses must win for you to see dividends.

Pick 9: Same as the Pick six, the only difference is that the odds are stacked much more higher and so is the payout. The Odds of the quinella are much higher than a direct win, so more money will be won if the quinella comes through.

Trifecta:If you are really lucky or really know your horses, you can wager on what is called a trifecta. So if you wager on horses 6 and 7 in an exacta or sometimes called a perfecta, you must specifically state which horse you bet will come first and which horse will come second.

High Five: You are wagering that your choice of 5 horses will finish 1st through 5th places in a single race. Betting beg on a pick 9 can give you millions in winnings.

Quinella: The Quinella is a term given to a bet that picks the two horses which will come first and second no matter the order. So if you are wagering on race 1 and race 2, you must bet on the horse that will win in race 1 and the horse that will win in race 2. The odds of picking the six winners in six races are high and so are the payoffs.. So if you bet that horses number 6 and 7 will come first or second, doesn’t matter which one comes first or second. Placing a $100 dollar bet on a good trifecta will give you a broad nice smile on you face when collecting your winnings.

Pick Four: Are you feeling a bit more lucky? well pick four is for you, you are wagering that your choice of 4 horses will win in FOUR consecutive Races. These bets are not available in all races as many factors depict if a customer can wager on a high 5 race such as the amount of horses in the race.

Exacta: In the exacta, you can pick the horses that will finish first and second in exact order. A trifecta is where three horses are placed in the exacta order of finishing 1, 2, and 3. So your wager is on horses 6, 5, 7 & 8 (all in 4 consecutive races)

Pick Six: No, this is not the lotto, you must be very lucky to burst this bubble, you are wagering that your choice of 6 horses will win their respective Races. Races with 7 or less horses are usually excluded from High 5 or another term pick 5 wagering.

Double Event: This waging is when you select the two winners from two consecutive races. All horse tracks offer exacta betting on most races

College Football: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News


On November 26th, the nation’s highest-profile pollster — Nate Silver of the New York Times — gave ten teams a better chance of making the inaugural College Football Playoff than the University of Wisconsin.

In the end, running up the score with your star players still in the game, in the final seconds of a game that was not longer being contested didn’t even register to Urban Meyer. Let me preface the conversation about college cheerleading with a quick aside about cheerleading in high school.

Emeritus Professor of Law, Northwestern; former NU faculty government chair; scholarship & litigation in education & civil right law.

The best answer to any question

Entrepreneur, Educator, Writer and Technologist – “Rabbi Without Borders”

Seth Abramson

While secondary market tickets for the College Football Championship Game are the most expensive for any college game this season, it’s on pace to be the least expensive national championship game by a wide margin.

Even if you aren’t into the game, football fandom isn’t just about what happens on the field anymore. Should they do so?


Last Saturday was somewhat of a day of reckoning within the top ranks of college football, with four of the top six ranked schools in the country going down. When you get in, you have the typical public perception of it being kind of quirky and not that tough, but it’s not like that at all. This may not be technically wrong, but it’s lame.

Without governance reforms that will put the players’ education and safety ahead of the coaches’ and schools’ money-making priorities, the academically elite Division I colleges’ claim to a higher ground is pure hypocrisy.

A number of schools are considering firing their longtime successful coaches, in the hopes of getting a more successful one. There are so many aspects to the football experience to enjoy — like the tailgating — that new gadgets have made it fun for everyone.

What this series of events does show is the chasm that sadly still exists in the experiences and therefore perspectives of most white people compared to most people of color.

Political science professor, LaGrange College in Georgia

Being a Harbaugh has given him more intimate exposure to football than most coaches, but it’s what he’s learned in life, not the Harbaugh legacy, that sets Jay apart.

From a distance, it appears that Jim Harbaugh is a great coach because he is a great father, husband, son and brother, and being a great football coach just naturally follows. 6 Texas A&M all bit the dust last week.

Co-founder & COO, FieldLevel, Inc.

Attorney; Assistant Professor, UNH; Poet; Editor, Best American Experimental Writing. 3 Alabama, No.

At all levels of collegiate play, there are five things that all high school prospects should do to improve their chances of getting recruited for a football scholarship

Christian leader for social change; President and Founder @Sojourners

Robert Scheer

In this week’s Scheer Intelligence podcast on KCRW, Robert Scheer speaks with former USC football player Anthony Davis about living with the brain injuries Davis sustained during his celebrated career.

Kai Sato

Rabbi Jason Miller

There will always be those who ignore the wisdom of others, but if more athletes realize the impact of what a 40+ year retirement will look like, they might perk up their ears just a little more.

It was the waning moments of a damp September fourth quarter, and football, as it often does, had brought out the ugly side of one of its fans. No. Tures

Editor,; Author, ‘They Know Everything About You’

John S. 4 Oklahoma, and No. In this case, the red-faced rooter was a 30-something dad.

It’s sorta weird. Michigan is a perfect fit for him because of who he is, where he is in his life and what he loves.

Jim Wallis

The Colorado Buffaloes come into town for a Thursday night showdown to kickoff what could be a make-or-break year for a man beginning his fourth year as head coach of the Rainbow Warriors. 2 Oregon, No. Here are the five big questions to keep in mind heading into the 2015 UH Football season.

John A

Secrets of Profitable Football Betting

I stay convinced there is certainly good likely to produce money on Betfair in football betting because you can find so many what I phrase ‘mug punters’ and ‘fan punters.’ These are the individuals who, in spite of every thing the kind and statistical files is there to reveal to us, will back again their favourite crew inside the hope they’ll by some means snatch a acquire. These can be much less ‘liquid’ on Betfair meaning there may be much less income flowing all-around but this could also perform in your favour in finding worth bets.

Around the past couple of years I’ve examined many methods intended to develop earnings on Betfair. Forget who will be successful the match, we can bet within the rating at half time, who will score first, the quantity of bookings as well as the number of corners. Sadly, extremely minor has delivered aside from in the short phrase. This opens up a different dynamic as we are able to reply to and business away bets because the game unfolds. Extremely often you won’t even recognise the team names or even their countries of origin! This doesn’t matter certainly as the web contains each of the information you need to see for making sound betting conclusions on and make a profit on these obscure video game titles. They may be ignored by many other gamblers but together with the proper method and entry to some info it’s uncomplicated to spot traits and build successful methods for Betfair round these.. A be aware of caution right here – as at all times, a sound approach and system is expected or your chance and publicity can get out of hand betting this fashion!

Betting on football – or soccer as we English name it – is 1 with the most popular gambling markets from the globe. These ‘fringe’ markets open up wonderful alternatives for those of us wanting to make income in football betting. This creates a strong industry for those people of us prepared to lay their ‘no hope’ staff for the great value!

Sports Betting

The selection of betting trade football betting isn’t just concerning the globally coverage, it’s regarding the assortment of outcomes we can bet on. But is it probable for making a income betting the football markets on Betfair?

The sheer quantity of football video game titles on which we will now bet on Betfair opens up a huge likely market place all twelve months round.

Author’s Bio: 

Faustino Pereria is an experienced business coach and management consultant with Business Growth Accelerators, specializing in growing retail and service industry businesses, and professional practices.

In addition as the conventional means of putting a bet earlier than kick off we may now bet in execute on several matches. Improved obtain to new betting markets and the speed and simplicity of on the internet betting has elevated this recognition even additional

Pete Rose sues former baseball investigator over rape claims

Dowd damaged his reputation and endorsement deals during a July 2015 interview on WCHE-AM in West Chester, Pennsylvania.

The lawsuit states Dowd said during the radio appearance that Rose associate Michael Bertolini told investigators he “ran young girls” to Rose during spring training, which Dowd called “statutory rape every time.” Bertolini’s lawyers issued a categorical denial last summer.

“Michael Bertolini, you know, told us that he not only ran bets but he ran young girls for him down at spring training, ages 12 to 14,” Dowd responded last year. “Isn’t that lovely. So that’s statutory rape every time you do that.”

On July 13, Dowd was asked on WCHE-AM whether he found Rose to be a likable person.

Dowd subsequently told that he did not want to discuss the Bertolini allegation any longer, saying it had been blown out of proportion.

A portion of Dowd’s 1989 report for Major League Baseball was headed, “Rose-Bertolini Betting.”

Former baseball star Pete Rose on Wednesday sued the lawyer whose investigative report got him kicked out of baseball for gambling, alleging the lawyer defamed him last year by saying on the radio that Rose raped young teen girls during spring training.

Rose, who lives in Las Vegas, had applied for reinstatement to the game last year and was about to appear at an All-Star Game in Cincinnati, where he coached and played, when Dowd said on Jim Rome’s radio show on June 23, 2015, that Rose “had Bertolini running young women down in Florida for his satisfaction,” the lawsuit said.

A man answering a phone listed for Dowd in Massachusetts did not identify himself, would not take a message and abruptly hung up on a reporter seeking comment.

Dowd investigated Rose for Major League Baseball in 1989, leading the league’s all-time hits leader to be declared ineligible for the Hall of Fame.

“Rose never did any such thing and until the Dowd accusations, no one had ever claimed he did,”Rose’s lawyers wrote in the complaint.

Rose said in the federal lawsuit that John M. “What Dowd attributes to Bertolini is false: Bertolini states he never told Dowd any such thing.”

Weight Training for Wrestling by Dickie White

Look at all the infomercials out there for the “next biggest thing in fat loss” or whatever. Bicep Curls- 3×10

Superset- Squat 4×8 and Dumbbell Walking Lunge 3×8

Dumbbell Incline Bench- 4×8

Deadlift- 5×5

Weighted Pullups- 3×10

Alternate Dumbbell Bench- 3×10

Second, there are a few systems and programs that are available that are absolutely fantastic. As wrestlers we know the truth- nothing replaces good old fashioned hard work. So for those of you who aren’t fortunate to workout at a well-equipped hardcore gym, keep reading, I have some great news for you…

Bench Press- 5×3

Weight Training for Wrestling Workout (first week in Tom’s Summer Program)

The other day I was fortunate enough to have former Cornell Wrestling Strength Coach, Tom Dilliplane, send me a copy of his 16-week summer program. This is the exact program he used over the summer of 2009, the summer before Cornell placed 2nd at Nationals and had 2 National Finalists. Yes, those YouTube videos of someone performing a cool looking exercise with a big tire look cool. These percentages and 2 more weeks of this program are included as one of 4 free gifts for signing up for my newsletter at

Deadlift- 5×5

Superset- Cuban Press 3×12 and Tricep Kickbacks 3×10

Cable Row- 3×10

Cable Row- 3×10

Day 1 Weight Training for Wrestling

Day 2 Weight Training for Wrestling

Dips- 3×10

Weighted Pullups- 3×10

Day 4 Weight Training for Wrestling

Tricep Kickbacks- 3×10

Bicep Curls- 3×10

Power Clean- 5×4

Day 3 Weight Training for Wrestling

Superset- Bench Press 4×8 and Med Ball Pushups 3×8

First, a great majority, especially those at the collegiate level, are basically offshoots of the football weight training program. In addition, Tom used similar types of programs for the 10+ years he was at Cornell working with the wrestlers. But believe me, this isn’t the focus of the weight training for wrestling plans I have my wrestlers use. Additionally, I think it’s worth considering the fact that if these new age styles of training were so groundbreaking and effective, don’t you think all the big wrestling schools like Iowa, Cornell, Iowa State, etc. Sticking to the tried and true barbell and dumbbell exercises that have withstood the test of time is what’s going to lead to the best results with your weight training for wrestling plan. While some would say the program looked boring and repetitive (you would not believe the repetition of such exercises as the Bench Press, Squats, High Pulls, Weighted Pullups, and other exercises that many may consider to be plain and boring but obviously get the job done) the fact of the matter is this- it works. And that should be the same way you approach yourweight training for wrestling. However these weight training for wrestling plans consist of exercises with sandbags, kettlebells, tires, kegs, thick reps, and a lot of other training tools that most wrestler don’t have access to. While there are some similarities, football players should be more focused on developing absolute strength, whereas wrestlers should focus their weight training on relative strength and power (strength per bodyweight). . I know, I post them from time to time. “Hardcore” equipment like this exists at underground gyms and training facilities and if you’re a member of one of those, there’s a good chance you already have someone helping you with your training. There are two major issues that I’ve seen with weight training for wrestling programs in my years of experience.

Incline Bench- 4×8

Power Clean- 5×4

Squat- 5×3

Please note that Tom bases all of his core movements (Squat, Bench, Clean, Deadlift, etc.) off of percentages of your max. would be using them already? Anyway, that’s enough, lets get into some weight training for wrestling plans.

As the sport of wrestling continues to grow (with at least some thanks going to the increasing popularity of MMA), weight training for wrestling has become a very sought after. While I do believe that these are great ways to bridge the gap between traditional weight room strength and functional wrestling strength (I use them myself often with my wrestlers), I also understand that a majority of wrestlers reading this article do not have access to this type of equipment. Oftentimes people are after the next greatest thing

Gbgc Provide Industry Trends And Statistics Gaming

It is more competitive and professional game performed well by the online game players. Industry Trends are the latest trends to make you eligible for online playing games.

Nowadays, games are offered in casinos, Red dog and blackjack, the table games like poker as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video poker are the most common types of gambling. It is playing an important role for introducing online gambling with excellent features. Dice based games, card games and coin tossing games are the most popular non casino based forms of gambling:- sports betting and arbitrage betting are the most up-and-coming kinds of gambling. The most important decision to gamble a certain amount of money is based on three factors namely; the predictability of the event, how much to bet and the conditions agreed upon between the gamblers. Nowadays, internet gambling is the most popular game activity played very well around the world. Today, internet gambling statistics have also predicted that Industry Trends are the latest trends that make you eligible for playing online games successfully.

Author’s Bio: 

Gambling is the most indispensable event to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome with intention of winning extra money. Recently, global market is very competitive, so online gamblers should be kept you up to dated and informed about the changing trends of playing various kinds of games around the world. It also shows that more and more people love to play very well in virtual casino gambling, especially for those people, who have grown to love casino and video games.

Warwick Bartlett is experienced writer, who will tell you that Statistics Gaming is the most suitable way to play gambling games in the virtual casinos. Today, computer technology is the most powerful form of entertainment and recreation and many more games. It is very latest internet betting, which is getting a lot of popularity among youngsters from all walks of life, young people and older people.. It is the loveliest activity for playing games very well. Statistics Gaming explains that it has been proved as the most powerful addictive activity to keep the online gamblers on moving path with various kinds of gambling activities of whether they can earn or lose in great deal.

Industry trends are the most up and coming trends to make you eligible for playing online games successfully. These trends are extremely treasured by worldwide players. The proficiency of a gambler lies in performing the calculation between three parameters and making a brand decision about what amount should be kept on venture and how much to expect in the return.

Statistics gaming demonstrates that online casino is getting a lot of popularity across the world